Education: Theory & Practice
Content and Language Integrated Learning Applied to Teaching Chemistry: A Case Study from Eastern Europe
Abstract. Adopting a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) approach implies a dual-focused education whereby a language other than oneâ€™s native tongue is used to learn and teach the content of a given academic discipline in a foreign language. This research is based on using English to teach chemistry to Grade 9 students in one of the outstanding secondary language schools in Bulgaria. Correlation exists between the level of proficiency in this foreign language and the past exposure of the students to that language. Moreover, past and present attitudes towards studying chemistry have been studied. Participants were of the opinion that scientific concepts need to be explained in their native language and that more laboratory based sessions need to be held, indicating the importance that students attribute to language integration through content learning, a crucial consideration in CLIL. Students are keen to experience alternative forms of classroom practice. Group work, involving the presentation in class of chemistry assignments in English, is not only perceived as an exercise in oral communication skills using a foreign language but also as a creative opportunity to deliver their collective effort in a scientific, innovative manner in a foreign language. This reinforces a consistent drive towards language learning and an urge for scientific literacy. This study supports the significance of a perspective which is less researched in CLIL, namely, language integration through content learning.
Keywords: content and language integrated learning; CLIL; chemical education research; English as a foreign language; secondary schools; Bulgaria
L. Bianco, I. AndonovaLog in to read the full text
Education: Theory & Practice
Is Argumentative Driven Inquiry (ADI) the Future of Science Classrooms?
Abstract. Argumentative Driven Inquiry (ADI) is a type of problem-based learning (PBL) that allows students to explore the scientific world around them. The ADI format allows students to take ownership of their scientific exploration by allowing the students to create their labs. It is believed that by allowing the students to create their method of exploration they will learn the whole process of the scientific method not just replicating a cookie-cutter lab. This research will look deeper into the ADI method and test its effectiveness on high school Biology students in three senior high schools in southern Indiana. Is ADI the future of science classrooms or is the current method of „cookie-cutter“ labs better for students?
Keywords: science activities; communication skills; inquiry; persuasive discourse; activity units; content area writing; content area reading; science experiments; science process skills; science course improvement projects; instructional design; course descriptions
J. E. Hollenbeck, M. EvansLog in to read the full text
Education: Theory & Practice
Science Domain in PISA 2015: Questionnaire Data and Conclusions [In Bulgarian]
Abstract. The most important goal of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is to help the policy makers in participating countries to take appropriate and efficient measures to improve education in their counties including a more effective targeting of financial resources. PISA 2015 collect numerous and diverse data on 15-year-old studentsâ€™ scientific literacy as well as a comprehensive contextual information on the students, their family backgrounds, teachers, schools and educational systems. PISA asks student teachers and school principals to respond to questionnaires on economic, social, and cultural background of students and their families, on studentsâ€™attitudes towards learning, their habits and life in and outside of school, quality of the schoolsâ€™ human and material resources, public and private management and funding, decision-making processes, staffing practices and the schoolâ€™s curricular emphasis and extracurricular activities offered, the context of instruction, including institutional structures and types, class size, classroom and school climate, and science activities in class as well as on studentsâ€™ attitudes and motivation to learn science, and their future career. As science is the major domain assessed in PISA 2015, the relation between studentsâ€™ achievements on one hand, and on the other â€“ teaching approaches, teachersâ€™ qualifications, school resources, studentsâ€™ interest and motivation to learn science, their career choices in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics, is a valuable source and a basis for the decision-making in improving science education. This article presents an analysis and conclusions on the PISA 2015 questionnaires as it is the last PISA survey focused on school science. 72 countries participated in PISA 2015. To facilitate the comparisons of the responses to the questionnaire the Bulgarian respondentsâ€™ data are compared to the average results of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member countries, and of five other countries selected on the basis of certain criteria.
Keywords: science education; PISA; school learning environment; school resources; science teachers
A. Tafrova – GrigorovaLog in to read the full text
Science Fiction to Promote Science: Learning Literacy and Social Understanding
Abstract. The use of science fiction will open new ways of learning and understanding science. Science fiction has long been discussed as a way to get students and adults alike more interested in science; â€• literary works could be successfully used to communicate science not only to children or scholars but also to the general public. Research and practical application in the classroom has found that, after reading science fiction stories and watching science fiction entertainment, there was a significant positive effect on the understanding of students who do not study advanced science. Using science fiction helps students to link literacy and science. Science fiction was found to enrich the science content and the abstract found in traditional science textbooks.
Keywords: science fiction; science literacy; motivation; alternative teaching; Physics; Biology; teaching
J. E. HollenbeckLog in to read the full text
A Study of Ability to Operate Images af the Human Envoronment (Mental Maps) of Students of Pedagogical Specialties [In Bulgarian]
Abstract. The ability of a person to use different systems for orientation in space is seen as an indicator of creative activity and is different at different stages of its development. The activities of an individual are usually concentrated in arenas integrated with their mental map. The article presents a study of the mental maps for orientation in the settlement area of students from two pedagogical specialties in two elective subjects, based on visualized by „mental maps“ inhabited space The solutions of the problem establish and describe the structure and content of the spatial image of that space. A quantitative and qualitative analysis of the made sketches of the region, are evaluated, according to accepted parameters. The conclusions about the qualities of the operational units of the spatial thinking of the students in pedagogical specialties are made and the basic specifics and dependencies are revealed.
Keywords: orientations; habitable space; mental map; study
M. G. DelchevLog in to read the full text
The Day of the Inductance: Problems of the 7th Experimental Physics Olympiad, Skopje, 2019
Abstract. This is the problem of the 7th international Experimental Physics Olympiad „The Day of the Inductance“. A large inductance made by a general impedance converter is measured by the Maxwell-Wien bridge. The youngest students (S category) have the problem to measure the parameters of the elements in the experimental set-up. The students at middle age (category M) should balance a Wheatstone bridge with resistors only. The inductance measurement is supposed to be accomplished by the students from the upper age (L category) only. From the university students (XL category) we expect error estimation and professionally made measurement protocol. As a homework problem (Sommerfeld price) the general formula for the impedance of the general impedance converter, where the general equation for operational amplifiers is included, has to be derived. Problems for further work are also given in the text. The described set-up can be considered as a prototype for companies producing laboratory equipment.
Keywords: physics; problems; Olympiad; Skopje
T.M. Mishonov, R. Popeski-Dimovski, L. Velkoska, I.M. Dimitrova, V.N. Gourev, A.P. Petkov et al.Log in to read the full text
Science and Society
Mathematical Modeling of 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019 – nCoV) Pandemic in Nigeria
Abstract. This study shows the mathematical modeling of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019 â€“ nCoV) pandemic and reinfection in Nigeria using SEIAHQR model. We use both estimated and assumed parameters in our computations. The available statistical data regarding COVID-19 in Nigeria from its date of arrival till May 17, 2020 (22.00 WAT) was used to estimate some parameters, understand and predict the spread and reinfection of the virus. The disease free and endemic equilibrium was investigated using Jacobian transformation. The analysis carried out using the estimated parameters showed that the disease free-equilibrium point is stable. The basic reproduction number of the model was calculated and shown to be less than one. The numerical simulation shows that there is 94% chances of secondary reinfection when infected and asymptomatic individuals interact with the susceptible and exposed individuals through contact, hence the need for reinforced effort from the government, decision makers and stakeholders in compliance to all preventive measure as directed by World Health Organization (WHO) can effectively control the spread of this deadly virus in Nigeria.
Keywords: mathematical modeling; 2019 nCoV, pandemic; reinfection; SEIAHQR model
S.A. Onitilo, M.A. Usman, O.S. Odetunde, F.A. Hammed, Z.O. Ogunwobi, H.A. Haruna, D.O. DanielLog in to read the full text
New Information Media
Use of Graphical Method to Study Uniformly Accelerated Motion [In Bulgarian}
Abstract. Graphical method in physics education is accessible, visual and informative. The author presents new methodical approach for its applying in order to study uniformly accelerated motion. It is connected with applying the Internet resource Volfram Mathematica Online and its graphical opportunities. It is considered solving graphical problems. Methodology for extracting information from kinematic graphs is presented. This approach fortifies theory and practice of the physics education with new ideas for forming qualitative knowledge, graphical skills and logical thinking.
Keywords: computer graph; methodology; motion; physics
H. PetrovaLog in to read the full text
Students and Their Teachers: Motivation of Learning Chemistry in School [In Bulgarian]
Abstract. The attitude to a subject and the desire to study depends on a large extent on the students’ motivation. The characteristics of learning environment, teaching methods and teachersâ€™attitude towards students in the classroom are among the most studied factors for studentsâ€™ learning motivation in various subjects. There is relatively little research in the field of science education. The article presents the results of studentsâ€™ and teachersâ€™ research on influence of the learning environment created by the teacher on studentsâ€™ motivation to learn chemistry. The research methods are a survey of 440 students and 17 chemistry teachers, and targeted observation of eight teachers in a class. According to the students, the studied aspects of learning environment have an impact on their motivation. The results of surveys and observations in the classroom show that the actions and behavior of teachers affect the motivation of students, but compared to students, teachers often overestimate the impact of the classroom conditions they have created. The study confirms the assumption that the learning environment and the teacher are among the most important factors for increasing chemistry-learning motivation. Another important motivational factor that stimulate chemistry learning is the future career choices young people make.
Keywords: motivation towards chemistry; chemistry teachers; science education; chemistry education
V. TodorovaLog in to read the full text