History of Philosophy
Pragmatic Interpretation of Knowledge in Wittgenstein’s Later Philosophy
Abstract. The article shows that Ludwig Wittgenstein used mostly pragmatic analysis to study the problem of knowledge in the later period. Without giving clear definitions of epistemological concepts, he argued that our interpretations of knowledge depend on the context of language-games, ideas of truth, certainty and justification, as well as the level of education and culture that form our way of life. It was found that the ideas of pragmatics were useful to Wittgenstein in order to more clearly define the nature of true knowledge, to outline the specifics of our refleсtions about certainty, as well as to analyze in detail all aspects of the justification. It is stated that his epistemological researches and discussions around them raised a wide range of not only linguistic but also psychological, cognitive and metaphysical issues, which made our understanding of the nature of knowledge much more comprehensive.
Keywords: knowledge; truth; certainty; justification; Wittgenstein
Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Ukraine)
Substance vs. Manifestation: Some Pages of “Person’s” History
Abstract. There are two ways in which a concept of “person” can be considered: substantial and demonstrative-relative ones. The former is based on the apprehension of the person as a being, on the search for the ultimate reasons of its existence. The latter refuses to consider these issues, thus describes the person as a phenomenon, a process of changing the states of consciousness. The danger of demonstrative-relative approach is that, examining only person’s manifestations, we risk not seeing the essence under poorly visible phenomena. Contemporary philosophers therefore should use substantial conception, despite the fact that it may seem ancient and old-fashioned.
Keywords: consciousness; manifestation; person; substance
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv (Ukraine)
Expression as a Solution of the Problem of Other Selves
Abstract. This article reflects a particular aspect of Merleau-Ponty phenomenological understanding of expression which solves the problem of other selves. As part of the solution I have explained Merleau-Ponty’s concepts of materialism and intellectualism and the introduction of embodied subjectivity. When we understand embodied subjectivity as the constitutive aspect that refers to the totality of an individual, this enables us to understand the concept of expression both in terms of bodily gestures and also from the perspective of linguistic expressions. When we understand the meaning of expressions in this way the concept of expression thus opens us up to understand others because of the sharing aspect of language as well as the world. It thus explains from the embodied expression to the notion of bodily gestures and from the bodily expression to facial expression in particular and expression in general dismissing the idea that expressions are not the result of our mental states.
Keywords: expression; phenomenology; embodied subjectivity; bodily gesture; language
Agarpara College (India)
Meaning of Life, Death and Immortality in Human Existence
Abstract. The article considers the problem of the meaning of life in ordinary, frontier and metafrontier dimensions of human being. The meaning of life in the ordinary life is biological and soulful one. The meaning of human life in the frontier being is the realization of the will to power, the will to cognition and creativity. In the harmony of the physical, mental and spiritual dimensions is the true meaning of life and its realization in the metafrontier dimension of human existence.
A person with a materialistic worldview perceives his/ her immortality in children and work. A person with an idealistic worldview insists on the immortality of the individual soul, which exists after death outside and independently of memory in it. A worldview that resolves the contradiction of materialism and idealism is personalism, where the immortality of the individual is posed.
Keywords: meaning; death; immortality; personality; worldview; ordinary; frontier; metafrontier being; metaanthropology
1)Svitlana Krylova, 2)Nazip Кhamitov
1)National Pedagogical Dragomanov University (Ukraine)
2)National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Ukraine)
PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION
Between Heresy and Kabballah – Adamitism and Adamism in Medieval Bulgaria
Absract. The present article regards the history of an adamitian sect practicing “ritual nudism” and the specifics of peculiar cult of Adam in the 14th century Bulgaria. On the basis of comparative analysis of other cases of “adamitism” in North Africa and Western Europe in Late Antiquity and Middle Ages it is proposed the hypothesis that Bulgarian “adamitism” was due to the influence of gnostic gospel texts belonged to Early Christian communities. In respect to “adamism” which is specified as a cult of non-biblical and non-Christian Adam, the view that it stemmed from the Jewish community inhibiting the capital of the Second Bulgarian tsardom and reflected religious notions connected with the medieval mystical Judaism is introduced. Chronologically the spread of “adamism” must be attributed to the 1350-ies. Then, according to the contemporary sources, Judaic religious ideas were actively propagandized in the capital city of Tarnovo and its vicinity.
Keywords: Adamitism; Adamism; Gnosticism
Dr. Hristo Saldzhiev, Assoc. Prof.
Trakia University -Stara Zagora
PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION
Methodological Orientations and Educational Strategies in the Formation of the Modern Age Thinking
Abstract. The article outlines methodological guidelines for the development of thinking in education. Relevant and productive is the thinking that aims not only to explain the unknown, but also to find the unknown and the unbelievable in the known and the obvious. This is a thinking of a different order, which is first in overcoming the existing boundaries, in “combining of not combined”, i.e. different, not reduced, etc. Its vitality is possible only if it constantly changes, destroys, balancing on the brink of chaos. It is emphasized that this thinking is not carried out in a well-defined way, it moves in agendas and changes in different directions, overcoming the boundaries of outlined representations, opening new horizons of understanding of being and place in it. It is argued that the development of thinking in education aims to move from learning focused mainly on memorizing a certain amount of knowledge to self-conscious understanding of them.
Keywords: thinking; complexity; modernization; philosophy for children; knowledge; potential
1)Svetlana Hanaba, 2)Nataliia Bakhmat
1)Bohdan Khmelnytskyi National Academy
of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine (Ukraine)
2)Kamianets-Podіlskyi Ivan Ohiienko National University (Ukraine)
Cultural Memory – “Installed Memory”. The Psychology Of The Collective Memory As An Implement For Political Power
Absract. The thesis of this article is that the cultural (collective) memory at the current society is a part of the political power. The cultural (collective) memory is an “installed memory” which is needed for the creation of the own image of society. It justifies and legitimates the existence of power structure. The power takes care of the mold of the societies collective memory. From this point of view we may not perceive the cultural memory just as an implement for differentiation and right to the political existence of some concrete community. Because it is about and of something else, namely it is about power which must be served from the collective memory. The power rules the cultural memory and the power takes a decision what concrete have to be remembered and whatnot it means what have to be forgotten. The ideology of power plays an essential role in this process. The cultural memory is an “installed” memory because the government decides what kind of fulcrums to be imposed into it with the purpose of this memory to work in service of the power structures. The cultural memory also creates a special psychology in its bearers and this affects their behavior and perception of the world.
Keywords: culture memory; power; society; history; politics; psychology; nation; ideology
Dr. Dimitar Petkov
Regional Museum of History – Razgrad
Outgrowing God: Problematic Reflections
Absract. These are reflections born by the reading of Richard Dawkin’s new book under the title Outgrowing God. A Beginner’s Guide. The text is not intended to be a review of this book, but an attempt at formulating problems and providing assessments of their putative answers. They refer to Dawkin’s optimism about the explanatory potential of natural selection and his atheistic position.
Keywords: Dawkin’s atheism; natural selection; intelligent design; science and religious faith
Prof. Anguel S. Stefanov,
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Bulgaria)
Review of Gunnar Skirbekk’s “Crisis and Co-responsibility. Short Political Writings”
Gunnar Skirbekk (2016). Krise og medansvar. Politiske Småskrifter
(Crisis and Co-responsibility. Short Political Writings).
Oslo: Res Publica. ISBN 978-82-8226-045-9. 272 p.
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Bulgaria)
New Book On Empirical Psychological Investigation
Stoyanov, V. (2020) Empirical Psychological Research: Quantitative versus Qualitative Approach. Varna: STENO. ISBN 978-619-241-087-2, p. 185.
Absract. The review of the monograph Empirical Psychological Research: Quantitative vs. Qualitative Approach evaluates the author's presentation of the two alternative modern approaches to conducting empirical psychological research – quantitative, based on scientific methodology and qualitative, which is based on the humanistic paradigm. Built on a different philosophical basis, they can be considered as complementary research approaches.
Keywords: alternative approach; psychological research; quantitative; qualitative; positivism; constructivism; alternative
Prof. Yancho Bakalov
Nikola Vaptsarov Naval Academy